A Historical Account of the Fulfillment of Passover
Passover at the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Yahusha
Robert D. Mock MD
Let us turn our attention
to the events which led up to the
crucifixion. Galilee and Judea were astir,
for it was a Sabbatical Passover that occurred
every seven years. According to Mosaic Law,
every seventh year the land would rest, with
no cultivation. The only produce during
that year could be grown, was that which grew
naturally, whether it was fruits or grains.
the population would have to stockpile provisions
for that seventh year. During this time,
the land stood at rest, and the population was
on a year long Sabbatical. During this time,
eager followers of any messianic or Hasmonean
aspirant to the throne flocked to their cause.
Those who were Torah students would spend
the year in the rabbinic schools of Torah study.
These were peak years for the Zealots cause,
with their obsessed goal to free Judea from Roman
rule. The Sicarii were always available
to promote the cause of freedom even if it meant a
quick assassination of an opponent.
We see Yahusha heading to Jerusalem,
and for the first time He cautions his disciples
to arm themselves, if nothing more than self-defense.
Peter takes on the stance of a personal bodyguard
of Yahusha. Prior to Yahusha’ arrival word reaches
him of the death of several Zealot patriots,
which give every appearance that the perimeters of
Jerusalem, or at least the City of David,
had been secured in anticipation of a general
uprising. Then the battering rams were brought
into the Kidron Valley. Soon the strong tower of
Siloam toppled and with it the death of
eighteen Zealot defenders.
The 8th of Nisan (Aviv) – Yahusha at Bethany
John 12:1 – “Then, six days before
the Passover, Yahusha came to Bethany, where
Lazarus was who had been dead, whom He had
raised from the dead.”
It was now six days
before the Passover (8th of Nisan), and
Yahusha was arriving in Bethany. At this time
he was a hunted man. Every since the
resurrection of Lazarus, a few days prior, the
Jewish leadership, were plotting to put Yahusha to
John 11:49-50; 53-54
– “And one of them, Caiphas, being the high priest
that year, said to them, ‘You know nothing
at all, nor do you consider that it is
expedient for us that one man should die for
the people, and not that the whole nation
should perish…Then, from that day on, they
plotted to put Him to death. Therefore
Yahusha no longer walked openly among the
Jews, but went from there into the country
near the wilderness, to a city called Ephraim,
and there remained with His disciples.”
In the few days
prior to the Passover, Yahusha had escaped
with his disciples to a wilderness town of Ephraim.
There they waited out the days before the
Passover. The tension was high. The
suspense was intense.
The city of Jerusalem was abuzz. Pilgrims by
the hundreds of thousands were thronging into the
city. As with every year, this was the
day when they anticipated the announcement of the
coming of the messiah. Would this be the year?
The pilgrims in route would collect palm branches
and cedar boughs to bring with them in
anticipation of the messiah. As with every
festival, every living space a pilgrim resided.
There they entered the mitzvah baths to purify
themselves. And then at the temple, they
awaited and watched for the coming of the messiah.
The whole populace was also in anticipation of
whether Yahusha would come to the feast.
Also the chief priests and Pharisees were also
waiting, for ‘if anyone knew where he was, the
word was out that he should report it, so that
the temple leaders might seize him.
– “Then they sought Yahusha, and spoke among
themselves as they stood in the temple, ‘What
do you think – that He will not come to the
feast?’ Now both the chief priests and the
Pharisees had given a command, that if
anyone knew where He was, he should report it,
that they might seize Him.”
The 9th of Nisan (Aviv) – Yahusha as Guest of
Honor with Simon the Pharisee
the eve of the fifth day before Passover, Yahusha
was a guest of honor in the home of Simon,
in a celebration feast. There, Mary
Magdalene, the sister of Martha and Lazarus was
also an honored guest. She opened an
alabaster vase with a pound of spikenard and anointed
the head and the feet of Yahusha, in the
manner of anointing a king.
– “And when Yahusha was in
at the house of Simon the
leper, a woman
came to Him having
an alabaster flask of
very costly fragrant oil,
and she poured it
on His head as He sat at the table.”
John 12:1-4 – “Then,
six days before
where Lazarus was who had been dead, whom
He had raised from the dead. There they made
Him a supper; and Martha served, but
Lazarus was one of those who sat at the table with
Mary took a pound
of very costly oil of spikenard, anointed the feet
and wiped His feet with her hair. And the
house will filled with the fragrance of the oil.
But one of His disciples,
Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son,
who would betray Him, said, ‘Why was this fragrant
oil not sold for three hundred denarii and
given to the poor?’”
The 10th of Nisan (Aviv) – Yahusha Arrives in
Jerusalem as a King of the House of David
on the evening prior to the day of the lamb
selection by the High Priest, Yahusha made special
preparations with his disciples (talmidim) for
the events of the next day. It was a
Yahusha knew that on the fourth day before the
Passover, the High Priest was to leave the city through
the North Gate as he went to the sheep herds and
inspected the yearling flock for the most perfect
lamb of the season. With this in mind,
Yahusha then laid out his strategy with his
of the 10th day of Nisan awakened.
The sky was crystal clear, the cool early spring
breezes swept down through the Kidron valley. The
ripened barley was waving at the base of the Mount
of Olives in the Field of Ashes. As
directed, the chosen disciples found a donkey with a
young colt tied in a doorway near an open
street. On the side of the Mount of Olives,
the disciples (talmidim) awaited their Master.
Within the city of Jerusalem, the crowds
of pilgrims were in anticipation of a great
procession with the arrival of the Pesach Lamb.
Every year, four days before Passover, a vast
entourage of cohanim (priests) would file out of the
Herod’s Temple. Instead of exiting out
of the gate nearest the Temple on the western wall
and walking over the overhanging bridge over the
Tyropean Valley that connected the Temple Mount
with the Upper City, the procession of hundreds of
cohanim (priests) paraded out of the Royal Stoa’s
western gate entrance, where the vast temple market
place, the Bazaar of Hanan (Ananus the Elder) was
located. There they walked down the wide
staircase over what is known as the Robinsons’
Arch, turning south, then west and
finally north as they connected with the main
North-west street of Jerusalem, the Damascus street
going to the North Gate, known as the Damascus
The procession entered the Upper City, where the
densely packed homes, had the appearance of an
impenetrable wall. To the left was the
tall imposing Hasmonean Palace, built over a hundred
years prior looming high on the horizon.
The cohanim (priests) began to line the sides of the
Damascus street, two by two, maintaining positions on either
side of the street, as they rocked back and forth with palm
fronds in their hands.
As the cohanim positioned themselves, the High
Priest and his entourage made its way north to
the North Gate. Outside the city they
inspected the flocks of yearling lambs to find
the most perfect lamb. Year after year this
custom was dramatized on the fourth day prior to
Passover. Inside the city, the
hundreds of thousands of pilgrims who flocked to the
city had already arrived, each one bringing a palm
frond or cedar bough, they had collected in route to
the Holy City. The whole city was lined with
greenery as they placed these boughs outside the
residence that they were staying.
The eager cohanim (priests) awaited the return of
the High Priest. When Caiphas, the high priest
entered the Damascus Gate bringing the
selected lamb by his side, the cohanim) at the gate
began shouting, “Hosanna to the Highest!
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!
Blessed be the kingdom of our father David that is
coming! Hosanna in the Highest!”
Upon hearing the shout the people in the city,
those who had already purified themselves in the
mitzvahs in the southern part of the city, ran out
into the street, also bringing their fronds and
started shouting, “Hosanna in the Highest!”
Outside the Damascus Gate,
to the east of the city, the disciples on the
Mount of Olives were waiting to rendezvous with
Yahusha. We now have a whole group of disciples
(talmidim), a mother donkey and her two-three years
old colt. A blanket is put over the colt and
Yahusha quietly puts his hand on the colt’s mane.
This was the colt’s first riding experience.
The quietness of the Master was transmitted to the
colt as He mounts and they begin the descent
into the Kidron Valley into the city.
as cued by the Rabbi Yahusha, the disciples begin
to shout, “Hosanna in the Highest! Blessed is
He who comes in the Name of our Lord!” The
flocks of pilgrims join in the chant as Yahusha and
the talmidim (disciples) went around the northern
part of the Temple Mount, below the base of the
Antonia Fortress towards the Gate of Damascus.
In the meantime, the Caiphas, the High Priest,
has now exited the Northern Damascus Gate and was
heading out to the fields to inspect the flocks of
yearling lambs. The chant intensified, the
cohanim at the Gate hear the chant and began to
shout, “Hosanna in the Highest! Blessed is He
who comes in the Name of our Lord!” The chant now
cascaded like a domino down the Damascus Street
all the way to the wall to the Temple Mount.
Suddenly, the cohanim at the gate realize, they have
been fooled. This was not the return of the
High Priest. This was Rabbi Yahusha and his
disciples. Some of the Shammaite Pharisees,
the dogmatic sticklers of church protocol and
defining the letter of the truth, challenged Yahusha,
“Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” Yahusha
shouts back to them over the swelling cries of the
multitude, “If these were silent, the very
stones would cry out.”
The people began to flock out of their homes,
grabbing their palm fronds outside the doors and the
shouting swelled throughout the city. Anticipation
was high! The whole land had heard of the
teachings of the great Rabbi Yahusha. Was this
not a Sabbatical year, a special year in which
the whole land rests? Were not rumors
abounding throughout the land that the messiah
would come in the on the Shabbat of years?
Not only was it a Sabbatical year,
it was a Sabbatical Passover, which only occurred
every seven years, the Highest Passover when
pilgrims throughout the Diaspora flocked to the Holy
Land. The city was swollen with pilgrims
throughout the world; Macedonia, Crete, Parthia, Rome,
and Ethiopia. Each pilgrim from their own
countries, each with their strange costumes akin
to their native land, many trying to remember a
bit of Hebrew they rarely used, occasionally
breaking into the tongue of their land of residence,
all producing a cacophony of sound and sight.
You can almost see a cohanim, rocking back and
forth with their palm fronds, breaking the rhythm,
leaning over and peering up the street. Where
is the priest? Where is the Lamb?
Suddenly they see. What! “Rabbi Yahusha
riding a colt. followed by mother ass. and a whole
entourage of His disciples!” What is this!
The crowd became ecstatic; the town was in a
tumult. They shouted, “Hosanna in the Highest!
Blessed is He who comes in the Name of our Lord! Blessed be
the kingdom of our father David that is coming!
Hosanna in the Highest!” Jumping in glee they
threw off their cloaks, so that the messiah could
ride over on a garment-laden path. Yes, said the
Zealots, this is our man! We have sealed the
perimeters of the city, and the revolt is ripe to
take the city in the name of HaShem. Yes, said
the Sicarii, we have waited for him. Now we can
destroy the hated Romans and the traitorous Temple
leaders, the Herodians, and the Sadducees,
who have played into and have been bought by the
blood money of the Romans. Yes, said the peasants and
the populous! Here is the messiah, who will
bring in the Kingdom of the God of Israel.
The crowds thronged behind Yahusha as He headed
south to the Temple Mount and the Royal Stoa. The
people, the cohanim were swept up in vast tide of
humanity. Guess what?
Caiphas, the High Priest
was returning from the northern fields with the
Passover Lamb in hand and as he entered the northern
Damascus Gate, the street was empty. What’s
going on! When he hears that Rabbi Yahusha has
entered the city as a royal aspirant to the throne of
David, the messiah who is come, and he was
furious. Type met antitype at this
moment. The Passover lamb met the Lamb of God.
Yahusha on the other hand,
passed under the Robinson’s Archway of the Royal
Causeway and dismounted at the base of the
assent to the Royal Stoa of the Temple. Up the
vast gateway he climbed. This entry gate was
awe-inspiring with polished limestone capped with
fold plated Corinthian capitals. Into the
Royal Stoa, he strode. It was a long hallway
straddled out before him with four broad columned
aisles. There in the quietness of the Royal
Stoa, in the stillness of the hour, in the
Temple of his Father, He prayed. It was getting
late, so He left the Temple and walked over to
The 11th of Nisan –Yahusha Throws out the
The next day, Yahusha returned
to Jerusalem and entered the Temple.
Along the street the merchants were setting up their
stalls to begin the commercial activity of the day.
The Lower Market was a very busy area. There
were cheeses in mounds, baskets with all manner of
fruit in them, jars with wine and various types of
grain bread lying in piles on the side.
Merchants from the east were unloading a wagon of
silk, as farmers and traders jostled as they
weaved in and out of the crowds. Here they came
to a large plaza with a monumental stairway leading
up to the Double Gate of the Temple Mount.
was the main entry into the Temple courts. This
area should have been an area of peaceful repose,
to bring one into a spirit of meditation before
entering the House of the Lord (HaShem). Yet
instead of the quiet meditation, He remembered there
in the Royal Stoa, there was frenzied commotion.
The clanging sounds and rabble of commercial
activity abound. To the right and left were the
moneychangers, exchanging the coin of the
empire, each bearing the image of Caesar into the
silver Temple shekel. The walls were lines with
small cages of doves and pigeons, where the
newly moms were bargaining for a thank offering
to celebrate the happy conclusion of their
pregnancy. Oxen and sheep were lining the halls
bellowing in the aroma of a barnyard. Let us
image the Houston Live Stock Show in the grandeur of
the Temple of God, and we can visualize in part what
Yahusha squinted his eyes
and then His face began to flush with anger. He
picked up a whip and began to overturning tables,
chasing out the merchants, with sheep, oxen,
and pigeons careening in three dimensions. In a
provocative show of force, he threw out the money
exchangers and the commerce in the temple courts
The 11th to the 13th of Nisan – the
Attempted Revolt by the Zealots
For three days, the sacrificial system ceased
and it appeared that Yahusha had full control of
the Temple compound. He spent the time
preaching and healing the masses of pilgrims.
With an estimated one million attendees
to the Passover, a three-day shutdown was a major
financial blow to the High Priest Caiphas and the
House of Ananus,
along with the Sadducean authorities, who made
millions of shekels for their own personal bank portfolios.
Yet the Sadducean Temple guards, and the Roman
cohort of troops (about 500), made no attempt to
arrest Yahusha because they feared the people who
were in sympathetic support of the ministry of
Matthew 21:46-46 – “Now
when the chief priests and Pharisees heard His
parables, they perceived that He was speaking
of them. But when they sought to lay hands
on Him, they feared
the multitudes, because they took Him for
Was Yahusha the Nazarene an armed revolutionary?
No! Though anti-Christian literature later would
depict Him as such, we must understand the
political and seething cauldron that Jerusalem was in
that day. The Zealots as can be suspected
took advantage of the political environment to
seal the perimeters of the city, in hopes of staging
a political coup. They were hoping to force
Yahusha to make a rightful claim to the throne of
David. Knowing His allegiance with the
multitudes, His powers over nature, His
ability to heal, and raise the dead to life, there was
every expectation that this claimant, Yahusha,
would succeed and lay full claim to the Messianic
to go as planned by the Zealots, yet Yahusha,
when He took control of the Temple complex, instead
of making an armed political coup against the
Sadducean Temple Guard and the limited Roman garrison
in the Antonia Tower, He instead began to heal the
sick and minister to the spiritual and
physical needs of the people. A live
demonstration of the true “Kingdom of God” was
demonstrated those three days prior to the Passover
feast in the courtyard of the Temple.
There was always swift retribution to any aspirant
to throne of David by the Romans, yet Yahusha,
recently anointed in Bethany, made a peaceful yet
highly visible entrance as a new claimant to the
throne of David. The governor of Judea, the
Procurator Pilate, would later say, “I find no
fault in him.” That a revolt was thwarted is
known by the legal swap of Bar-Abbas , the grandson
of Judas of Galilee, the famed revolutionary in 6 CE,
who revolted with the census of Roman. Now
his grandson was plotting an armed revolutionary
overthrow of the Roman. While Bar-Abbas was set free,
Yahusha was hung on a tree with two of Bar-Abbas
By the 14th of Nisan,
the Zealot forces went into retreat without the
full support of Yahusha and the thousands of the
supporters of His cause. Yahusha had come
as the “Prince of Peace” not as a fiery messianic
warlord, like David. The revolt in the making
fizzled out. The price of the failed revolt,
was the lifeless body of Judas, hanging from a
tree in a potter’s field.
The Four Days of Inspection
According to the Mosaic instructions
on the observance of the Passover, the lamb was to
be inspected by the High Priest and cohanim for four
days before the Passover slaying of the lamb.
For four days, Yahusha was also inspected,
interrogated, accosted, intimidated, and challenged
by the Pharisees, scribes and lawyers.
From the 11th to the 14th of Nisan,
the Passover lamb stood in the inner Temple arena and
was scrutinized by the High Priest and Sadducees.
On these same four days, Yahusha stood in the
outer courts of the temple, ministering to the
populous and repeatedly responding to the inspecting
challenges by the rabbinic masters of law,
halakhah, temple authority, and religious dogma,
or eventually in the judgment hall of Pilate listening
to the slanderous accusations against Him.
What was the Nature of these Challenges by the Pharisees,
Herodians, Sadducees, and Scribes
The first challenge
against Yahusha was on the authority of
Yahusha, and who gave Him his authority?
(Matt 21:23-27, Mark, 11: 27-33, Luke 20:1-8)
Yahusha’ rebuttal was initiated
by telling the parable of the landowner of the vineyard,
whose tenants slew the land owner’s son.
(Matt 21:33-46, Mark 12:1-12, Luke 20:9-19)
then spoke a parable of the king preparing a
wedding feast for his son, the heir apparent.
The invitees to the feast either ignored the
invitation or killed the servants who brought the
invitation. A guest without a wedding garment
is cast out.
The second challenge
was concerning three questions by the Pharisees,
Herodians, and scribes to Yahusha and the one
question by Yahusha to His challengers.
The first question
was by the Pharisees and Herodians concerning
paying taxes to Caesar.
(Matthew 22: 15-22, Mark 12:13-17, Luke 20:20-26)
The second question
was from the Sadducees concerning the
(Matthew 22:23-33, Mark 12:18-27, Luke 20:27-38)
The third question
was from the scribes about the great
(Matthew 2:34-40, Mark 12:28-43, Luke 20:39,40)
then sent the challenge to the Pharisees, scribes and
Herodians concerning the messiah’s ancestry.
(Matthew 22:41-46, Mark 12:35-37, Luke 20:41-44)
a final rebuttal, Yahusha proclaimed the
“Woes” upon the Scribes and
(Matt 23:1-39, Mark 12:38-40, Luke 20:45-47
while the selected Pesach lamb was being examined by
the temple authorities, during these
same three days Yahusha was scrutinized on whether
His teaching were according to the halakhah of the
Torah. He was challenged on His
spiritual and ancestral authority plus His civil
responsibility as a dependant of Rome. Here
He met face to face with His accusers which
included the: the temple lawyers, the scribal
codifiers of the law, the
Pharisees of the House of Shammai
who controlled the Synagogues in Judea in this era,
the controlling Sadducean authorities of the
House of Ananus
and the Herodians who ruled parts of Judea as
administrative representatives of Rome.
In the inner courts, the High Priest could find no fault
with the selected Passover Lamb and on the 14th
of Nisan, Passover, slew him on the altar of the Lord.
On the outer courts of the Temple, the religious leaders
and the civil governor could find no fault in Yahusha, and
hung Him on one of two sites: the Mount of
Olives at the site of where the “red heifer”
was burnt and the ashes were collected or on Mount
Moriah where Abraham slew the goat in substitution
for his son, Isaac on the altar to the Lord.